Sunday, February 23, 2020

Trifles a drama by Susan Glaspell Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Trifles a drama by Susan Glaspell - Essay Example The wives, Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale accompany the men to take some personal belongings for Mrs. Wright. The men get busy looking for evidence to account for the murder and leave the women to the â€Å"trifles†. It is then that they look around and find the various things in the kitchen and the room upstairs to establish a plausible connection between the murder and the objective. Starting out from the title, â€Å"trifles†. Trifles are things which are little, irrelevant and insignificant. The irony of the matter is that the â€Å"trifles† are so just for the men, and they mean quite a lot to the women. The ruined fruit reserves, symbolize the state of Minnie’s life - she too must have bottled up under the watchfulness of John Wright. The comment Wright makes about wanting only â€Å"peace and quiet† might throw some light on the loneliness of their lives. The messy tabletop also points out to things undone, which could have been because of the disturbed state of mind of Minnie. The coldness in the house also suggests the solemn and sad atmosphere in which they lived. Mrs. Hale comments that the house was never lively, it was down the hollow and did not look up the road and that is why she never felt like coming there. It is evident that a place which looks dreary from the outside must have been quite a burden to live in for Minnie. This coldness also symbolizes the warmth leaving the relationship between the two. The house being down in the hollow, John’s refusal to the party telephone, the childless home, all indicate the lonesomeness of the couple. Minnie who was cheerful and would dress up nice, now stayed in all the time with her songbird as her child. The death of the bird is empathized by Mrs. Peters in remembering the death of her own 2 years old child. What that meant to Mrs. Peters now meant the same to Mrs. Wright. This highlights the graveness of the wrung neck of

Friday, February 7, 2020

Kaizen Costing and Target Costing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Kaizen Costing and Target Costing - Essay Example Target Costing Process: Mostly companies use target costing to project visible cost targets for any new products they seek to establish in the market. The targets set by companies are very aggressive. The idea behind this approach is to maximize cost control and ensure that profit is as steep as possible. The process begins when a company's top management establishes its target cost for the new product. For instance a Chrysler Neon or Caterpillar Excavator. The cost estimating group in the company will break the costs for the whole product into cost targets for sub-assemblies and individual components of the product. These could be engine, the transmission seats, the steering, the gear, the covers, the paddle, the clutches etc. Mostly a gap exists between the target costs as well as the cost projections for the new product based on current designs and manufacturing capabilities of the product. The real deal lies in narrowing down the gap that exists between the cost projections and target costs through cost reduction. This is where the cross functional teams come into play. By analyzing modes of manufacturing involved, process associated with the product, the raw material requirements and the costs, they figure out the cost saving opportunities. The following paragraphs will focus on the approach applied by DaimlerChrysler and Caterpillar deployed target costing in their companies. In these companies, target costing is supported by a matrix organizational structure which has both horizontal as well as vertical functional teams.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

American Psychological Association Ethical Code Essay Example for Free

American Psychological Association Ethical Code Essay A Code of Ethics can be an overly complicated document that seeks to embrace every detail of behaviors that will not be acceptable to senior company management if found out. Meanwhile employees are pressured to deliver results which will often be enhanced if they do not strictly adhere to the Code of Ethics. The contention is that ethical codes are important to the organization; there is an ethical code, so the organization must be ethical. To the employee, it defines boundaries so they know when they are crossing them. Not all ethical codes are equal. If they protect employees from breaching some unwritten code, then they are good and fair. They must also be applied rigorously to senior management. It is normal for people who make rules to think that they should apply to others more than themselves, and that’s not a healthy way to look at it. As we have all learned, rules should apply to everyone for them to be just. If rules are made for only a certain group of people within an organization, the balance of power tips to one side unfairly and it leaves the organization and its consumers open to ethical breaches. My source showing why codes of ethics are important.  Ingram, David. Importance of Creating a Code of Ethics for a Business. Small Business. Houston Chronicle, 2014 Codes of ethics are very important because it guides decision making. It creates a cohesive understanding boundaries within an organization and it sets standards for interacting with external people. A well written, formal code of ethics can reduce ambiguity of certain rules and can serve as a guideline for making tough, and often controversial decisions. A code of ethics also plays an important role of protecting a companies and its employee’s reputation and where it stands legally when there is a breach of ethics by an individual person. A good code of ethics helps avoid not knowing what to do when one is confronted with a big dilemma. When a code of ethics is written for businesses that operate overseas and/or in other countries, it can be vital that an organization abide by the code of ethics to avoid a very unfortunate  misunderstanding in another country that may have drastically different views than your own. As I have shown, it is critically important for an organization to have a formal, well written code of ethics to set ethical standards for individuals within the organization. That way, when an individual breaches that ethical code, the organization can fall back on that code of ethics and say that what that individual did goes against the organizations standards. So generally codes of ethics are good, and needed. They serve a critical purpose in most organizations and serve as a guideline of how to conduct business. It safeguards the company against breaches of ethics because they have their own code of ethics that are written and can show it to prove where they stand whenever their standards are calle d into question. My source showing what’s wrong with codes of ethics.  Lunday, Jason. Codes of Conduct: Typical Weakness and How to Overcome Them This article highlights what can be wrong with codes of ethics. One of the main problems with codes of ethics is that they may not be well constructed and not specifically address the companies specific needs and characteristics. Sometimes the standards in the code of ethics don’t clearly specify what an employee should do with certain challenges, and can sometimes put an employee in a dilemma abiding by the standards and suffering the consequences, or going against the code to get the job done. Many employees have indicated that codes of ethics are written with good intentions and convey good intentions, but most of the time they do not acknowledge the realities and practicalities of the business environment. Some codes of ethics can set the wrong tone and seem too vague or even too legalistic. Employees have stated that some codes of ethics seem to be protective of top management rather than the whole company, especially those at the lower levels. What I have noticed with some codes of ethics is that they do sound too legalistic and they leave a lot of the common sense topics out. Most codes of ethics do not include advertising, but most companies advertise in some way. Some codes of ethics are created with benchmarks of other companies codes of ethics. When this happens, an organizations code of ethics might sound and look great, but it doesn’t fit their specific purpose and doesn’t address some of the most important aspects of the organization. One Strength of the Code of Ethics. Psychologists are involved in the difficult area of human behavior. On a daily basis they are dealing with people whose view of the world has often been distorted by their history. They may begin to lose their own guideposts. The Code of Ethics is a reference that can be consulted to make sure the psychologist does not stray from a moderate behavior path. If it creates conflicts for the practitioner the relevant Ethics Code can be taken up with a supervisor allowing for discussion and interpretation. One Weakness of the Code of Ethics The Council of Representatives of the APA developed the code. Anytime you have a committee design something you are likely to complicate it. Each representative has their own world view and in a committee setting feel they have to contribute more. The weakness is that adding more detail rather than making issues clearer can make them ambiguous. There are Ten Commandments in the bible and 89 ethical standards set by the APA. One thing I saw and did not expect I did not expect that the Code would exclude application to practitioners outside of work activities. While legally the Code probably cannot be enforced outside of work, if the Code is silent on that point it would imply that this should be a personal code anyway. By stating that it does not apply outside of work it implies that practitioners have to be on their best behavior at work and not the way they might behave outside of work. This weakens the practice of the code. An example of when the code might be used. Standard 3 is a key Code in this line of work. As the patient has life issues their gratitude for help and verbal intimacy with the practitioner may lead to a relationship. The Code of Ethics is a reminder to not let this happen. While the Code of Ethics is restricted to work activities this area should apply if practitioner is in a work situation or not. Explanation of why the code would be used As in all occupations. ‘Do no harm’ must be the key ethical position. As the brain is a largely unknown organ, psychologists have to be very careful about their treatment of mental issues. Their patients are at various stages of walking towards a personal precipice, the practitioner cannot afford to give an accidental push. Code 3.08 covers exploitative relationships between practitioner and patient and is the most likely violation of code which must be reported. As patients are having trouble with their own reality a suggestion from the practitioner may be seen as ‘normal’ by the patient but not by the ethical code. Works Cited American Psychological Association Code of Ethics Ingram, David. Importance of Creating a Code of Ethics for a Business. Small Business. Houston Chronicle, 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. . Lunday, Jason. Codes of Conduct: Typical Weakness and How to Overcome by Jason Lunday. Corporate Compliance Insights. 17 June 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. .

Monday, January 20, 2020

Identity Formation in Mansfield’s The Garden Party Essays -- The Garde

  Ã‚  "The budding rose above the rose full blown," writes William Henry Wordsworth, elevating the process of emerging, changing and evolving over those already developed, established and matured. While Wordsworth’s remark regards a rose, the statement also accurately describes Katherine Mansfield’s protagonist in The Garden Party. The narrative focuses on a wealthy family from New Zealand, jaded by elite lifestyle and prominent social standing. The youngest daughter, Laura, "the budding rose" of the story, seeks to break the constraints of upper class society, causing her to be both more mature and compassionate than other members of her well to do family. Laura’s internal struggle, the main conflict of Mansfield’s story, is one of identity, and she oscillates between imitating environmental influences and reacting to them in a manner that is unique to her individual personality. Throughout the course of the story, the pendulum of her conscience swings to converse sides, causing her actions to be inconsistent and without allegiance to either her family’s upperclass exclusive ways or to her inherent qualities of equality and empathy. This varying behavior causes critics to dispute over Laura’s "true" personality, motives and objectives. While some critics believe that her sympathetic efforts are an attempt at rebelling from the expectations of her class, others believe that she is an empathetic individual without a supportive family. Another group of critics believe that the story presents only the initiation of Laura’s kindness, suggesting that she will continue to flourish into a compassionate person on the outskirts of upper class society; others refute this view, stating that The Garden Party portrays the extent of Laura’s d... ... Daly, Saralyn R. "Katherine Mansfield" New York: Twayne Publishers; 1914. Kleine,Don W. "’The Garden Party’: A Portrait of the Artist,"Criticism, Vol. V No. 4 Fall, 1963, pp.360-371. Kobbler, J.F. "Katherine Mansfield. A Study of the Short Fiction". Twayne Publishers. Boston: 1991 Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party. Norton Anthology Ed. M.H. Abrams W.W Norton & Company: New York, London, 1996, 1996 pp. 2510-2520 Pilditch, Jan. "Reference Guide to Short Fiction, 1st Ed.", St. James Press, 1994. Rich, Jennifer. "’The Garden Party’ and Other Short Stories by Katherine Mansfield". Satterfield, Ben. "Irony in ‘The Garden Party.’" Ball State University Forum Vol. XXIII No. 1, Winter, 1982 pp. 68-74. Sorkin, Adam J. "Katherine Mansfield’s ‘The Garden Party’: Style and Social Occasion" Modern Fiction Studies Vol. 24, 1978, pp.439-455.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Application of Critical Thinking to Business Analysis Essay

Critical thinking is the basis of business analysis. It involves a force of habit, which determines the quality decision that the business analyst makes. Critical thinking is what enables businesspersons to think through challenges and situations. Because of this, critical thinking is vital element that should be refined, nurtured and actively implemented in every business analysis and decision making process. For the analysts to make decisions with the greatest outcome they should apply critical thinking since it involves rational reasoning and reflective thinking. It enables them to put every aspects of the decision into consideration in terms of the pros and cons of every option to be taken. Critical thinking initiates opportunities through exhaustive analysis thus leading to making well-informed decisions. It helps manager avoid the inconvenience of learning through experience. It assists in planning effectively while putting everything into consideration. It helps the administra tors save on costs by mitigating on mistakes that could cost the company to incur extra costs. Critical thinking is important in business analysis because it involves assessing, reflecting, planning and making right decisions while paying attention to details (Nosich, 2012). Critical Thinking in the Context of Business Analysis In order for the efficient implementation of business, it is important to understand the meaning of business analysis. Business analysis therefore refers to a set of techniques and tasks implemented by the various stakeholders. The main purpose of the implementation is to understand the operations, policies and structure of a particular business entity. It also involves the recommendation of various solutions in order for the organization to achieve various goals that it has set forth to achieve. Business analysis therefore entails the understanding of the ways in which various organizations carry out their operations. Production of products defines the capabilities of the organization. These products entail specific goods and services offered in the present market within which the organization is conducting its operations. External stakeholders also play a major role in the product distribution chain of a particular product. For a successful business to prosper, various key steps ne ed to be implemented for a. These strategies require a critical analysis, which will involve the applications of virus concepts of critical thinking (Smith, 2003). In any organization, it becomes very important to define the goals of the organization. The organizational goals relate to the specific objectives set forth. These goals help in the achievement of the goals designed. It also becomes necessary for the team in charge of making various policies and decisions to focus on the various actions that the organization is going to adopt so that it can achieve its set targets and objectives. Finally, it is important also to define how various external entities to the business will interact with each other. For instance, in this particular case, stakeholders and organizational units outside and within the organization will require definition and the mode of interaction defined. Business analysis aids in the understanding of an organization’s current state. It also provides a platform to identify future prospects of business needs that may arise. However, in most cases, the principle aim of conducting business analysis is to validate and pr ovide business solutions that conform to the objectives, goals and needs of a particular entity. The synthesis and analysis of information provided by numerous number of stakeholders tops the priority list. The various business analysts then analyze it. These particular stakeholders include customers, executives, IT professionals and staff. Critical thinking is therefore involved in various process of business analysis. A business analyst has the responsibility of obtaining actual needs from the various stakeholders. The particular process involves an actual distinction with the various desires expressed by particular stakeholders. The business analyst also facilitates the communication and interaction between various units in the business. It therefore means that through critical thinking, a business analyst is able to foster communication and interaction between various business units. It becomes possible through the alignment of various business unit needs. In the business process, the process lightens by the integration of information technology. It serves as an interpreter and a translator between the groups (Smith, 2003). The competitive nature of any business entity originates from the various policies that exist in order to counter competition from various companies. Competition arises due to various factors. Some of these factors include a company offering complementary and supplementary goods, similar to their rivals. In this particular scenario, there is always competition for the market share. Elimination of one firm in this competition may occur if there is no application of critical thinking to devise survival ways to counter such a move. Price becomes a determinant factor when it comes to competition between two rival industries competing for the same market share. Another reason as to why competition arises is the difference in pricing of similar commodities. A rational consumer is always attracted to a firm, which is selling cheaper than others are. Price is a significant determinant of product choice. Majority of the rational consumers exercise the power of choice when products occur in a wide range (Smith, 2003). Majority of the business operations operate based on the types of decisions made across all the levels of production. Critical thinking forms the baseline upon which various policies formed and implemented. The success of a business entity becomes relative to a number of factors that help it be at a competitive level with other businesses in the same industry of operation and service. Several elements exist that become fundamental when implementing critical thinking to help the organization. Critical thinking involves the analysis of the current business operations, procedures and policies. The mastery of this particular process makes it possible for the business analyst to be familiar with the operations that are taking place. It also involves the identification of errors that may have occurred which led to the company not achieving its dreams. Moreover, apart from analyzing the internal factors of the firm that affect its operation, business analysis also focuses on the external en vironment that may affect the operations of a certain business entity. Inward communication strategies, pricing policies, production processes, marketing and branding are internal factors that affect the business entity (Smith, 2003). An analysis of the external environment that includes the political environment, competitors, the economy of a particular country concerning inflation and budget allocation also play a very important role. These may influence the pricing strategy pf a particular company. The political environment also determines the way in which the company interacts with various other companies overseas in terms of the taxes charged on imports and exports. It therefore narrows down to the fact that critical thinking contributes towards the existence of majority of the industries and companies in the world. The study of the market structures to determine the appropriate time for trade is what distinguishes a successful company from a failing company. The ability to fore see a coming calamity and danger and be able to efficiently plan is what critical thinking entails. In the end, it saves the company many resources since evasion of eminent dangers occurs through future prediction. Critical thinking i s an attribute of various business analysts. The presence of these personnel in an organization is important. They constitute the think tank of any industry (Smith, 2003). The application of critical thinking in a business environment happens through all the levels of management. At the strategic level, critical thinking may focus on issues that affect the company in general. At the operational level, critical thinking entails the unique creativity that may exist if a company decides to adopt product differentiation or diversification to have a range of commodities in the market. By giving a rational consumer a wide pool to select from, the company is able to face out different companies, which are providing supplementary products. It is able to wholesome reap from the market all the customers who have great trust in the product that they offer. Critical thinking is always neglected because majority of the companies only react when faced with certain risks. For instance, if the profit margins of a company begin to decline considerably, the management of the company becomes alarmed. At this time, they invest in quick decisions that aim at the company re generating various incomes. It is always a very poor form of responding and managing o frisks. In an ideal situation, the company is supposed to preview their previous strategies and look for elements that contributed to the decline in the revenue gained. After the identification of the various stated problems, an in depth analysis is to be conducted to determine the facts. Critical thinking plays a major part when it comes to the redefinition of the various goals and objectives. These elements are important to ensure a competitive state of the organization (Nosich, 2012). The success of a company is, therefore, dependent on the various decisions made from all the levels of production to management. The careful analysis of various problems that a company faces undergoes analysis and various solutions proposed in an efficient way as opposed to a quick manner. Using this channel, a company is able to get maximum returns from the various activities that it conducts. There are increased chances of lack of fear when it comes to the anticipation of problems. Critical thinking is the center of an organization’s success. The ideas of inventions and product creation derived from a panel composed of individuals explain the importance of critical thinking. Those who think critically through particular scenarios provide a solution that earns the organization maximum massive profits. The strategies in all the organizational units implemented are a success because of the decisions made by the members of a particular panel. Marketing, sales and even production departments all require various skills in critical thinking to produce products that are highly profitable to the organizational entity as a whole. This document therefore recognizes the importance of critical thinking when it comes to the analysis of different business operations to achieve various goals and objectives (Smith, 2003). Application Business analysts use critical thinking to make effective and efficient long term and short term plans for the business organizations. In order for the business managers to make decisions and plans for the business they have to think critically in terms of their objectives and goals in relation to the resources a business firm has. Managers have to think critically so that they can predict the possible threats that the business might face and be able to formulate their respective solution in time. The managers have to ensure that the challenges find the firm adequately prepared. For this to happen there has to be a lot of thinking in the planning process. The administrators have to consider every aspect of their plans in order to come up with short term and long term plans. Critical thinking is what ensures that required measures have been put in place to make a firm prepared for the challenges. Critical thinking helps the administrators to come up with the time frames for the long t erm and short term plans. Critical thinking makes the plans achievable and it helps in the identification of plans and investments that are not viable (Smith, 2003). Business analysts in conforming valid requirements also apply critical thinking. It enables the business analysts and managers to pay attention to details and not the face value or what they hear. Critical thinking enables the administrators to weigh up the evidence produced by stakeholders with relation to the challenges and consequences before making decisions or recommendations. It enables the manager to be future oriented since they have to consider the impact of the decisions or options they take. They have to consider the deadline, available resources and the possible outcome of the requirement. Through critical thinking, administrators go for what the business entity really needs and not what they want. This aids in prevention of unnecessary costs that would have been caused by purchasing excess requirements. It also helps businesses in avoiding wastes (Nosich, 2012). Critical thinking is applied in risk prediction, prevention and mitigation. In planning for the likely risks and hazards that a firm might face the analysts and administrators have to think carefully. They have to think critically to identify possible risks and formulate respective measures and solutions, which can be used to prevent them. Critical thinking in such situation is aided by acquisition of information from other similar firms that have existed in the market for longer periods. Critical thinking enables administrators to implement safety measures in the firms such as emergency doors, exists, fire extinguishers, gloves and aprons. It also enables business firms to determine the right time to enroll in the markets and the right time to withdraw. It enables companies to avoid financial risks, as managers are able to plan and make the right decision (Smith, 2003). It is also applied by the busyness analysts in the seeking solutions of business challenges. Businesses face challenges from time to time. The challenges range from financial, human resource conflicts with other firms and so on. To overcome these tough times the business managers have to think critically and formulate long lasting solutions that will save the companies fate. Conflicts are normal in the Business administration but they require rational thinking and decisions so that they can be overcome. Even the internal conflicts in the firms require the administrator to think critically about the situation and make fair decision or advice to the conflicting parties. The administrators have to listen and think first before passing judgment. This will enable him to avoid prejudice or bias in the decision made (Nosich, 2012). The leaders at the same time have to think and come up with policies that may hinder external and internal conflicts in the firm. Critical thinking is applied in the shortening life cycles of businesses projects. Through it managers are able to determine the required time frame and ensure that the projects move as per the stipulated time. Managers are also able to avoid unnecessary events and occurrences, which have the possibility of delaying the business projects. Critical thinking ensures advance planning and as a result, there is order in the running of the firms. The advance planning ensures everything moves as per the scheduled time and this helps in saving time and shortening the life cycle of the projects as only, the necessary cycles are implemented (Smith, 2003). Critical thinking is also applied in beating competition from similar firms. In order for firms to have competitive advantages the administrators and analysts have to go an extra mile of being creative and innovative. They have to do the same things extra ordinarily right or they have to come up with new ideas and products that will give them an advantage over their competitors. To do this successful they need to brainstorm and think critically. Managers have to do research and be able to predict the future of the company. This will enable them come up with various ideas and policies that will boost their performance. They have to come up with new marketing strategies and new modes of operations. They have to target more customers and become inventors. To implement this, management has to use critical thinking. They have to consider the weaknesses of their competitors and take advantage of them (Smith, 2003). Profit maximization and loss minimization can also be enhanced by application of critical thinking. For profit maximization, the business administrators have to be inventors and innovators. They should come up with new ideas and policies that will make their products and services unique from their counterparts. This requires high level of thinking and that is when critical thinking comes in handy (Nosich, 2012). Critical thinking helps in making the right financial decisions hence the company is able to maintain its profits. Critical thinking enables managers to come up with plans that minimize losses and wastage. They help in shortening duration of projects and in the long run increase productivity. An increase in productivity in turn increases the profits. Business administrators also apply critical thinking in making decisions to do with employment. The management has to determine the required number of employees to be hired and define their specific roles and duties. Critical thinking helps in determining the required number of employees that will provide the most outcomes. Critical thinking assists the manager in employing the employees with the required skills for specific positions. The manager should also know when to scale down and when to add the number of employees. The manager has to think critically of the kind of skill required in the organization before employing a person. Critical thinking helps manager to form the right workforce required for optimum production (Smith, 2003). The business analysts apply critical thinking in the making of right investment policies and decisions. Before making the right decisions on where to invest, analysts have to think through the possible options and take the option that is most viable and profitable. Critical thinking in this case will help the administrators consider the pros and cons of every investment option. This enables them to make the most informed decision by taking the best option. Critical thinking also helps administrators in assessing and evaluating the progress and position of the firm. It is applied to help managers determine if they are on the right track. Managers are able to determine if they are operating on a loss or profit through critical thinking. They have to think through and determine if the projects are moving as per the stipulated plans and goals. Do determine right progress the managers have to carry out various research and consultation in comparison with data at hand (Nosich, 2012). Discussion and Conclusion Various scenarios in the business process have required an individual to apply critical thinking in various business processes. The result of the decisions made in the various panels has resulted into massive goals and targets achieved by the said industries. Companies have been able to rise from various falls while some have succumbed to defeat. New entrants have entered into the marked and dominated the events will the already established monopolistic firms faced out because of this. It is therefore important that a company recognizes the importance of such a key process and invests I it. The using of appropriate skilled experts also goes a long well in helping the industry achieve its goals and objectives. The existence and sustainability of a given organization in the market is highly influenced by the various policies they adopt. Companies have marred up to produce complementary and supplementary products while some faced out. It therefore becomes important that the company look into the various strategies with an in-depth eye with an aim to creating various opportunities and channels for growth and profitability (Nosich, 2012). Business analysis through critical thinking becomes an effective way of determining the organization’s strengths and weaknesses. The implementation of SWOT analysis in a business environment will be effective upon incorporation with critical thinking. The identification of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Time factors require a vision that is not velar by the other firms competing in the same market. In conclusion, this paper finds critical thinking a very important element in the existence of a company in the ever dynamic and competitive business environment. It also views the basis of competition resulting from the difference in the decisions that various companies tackle one particular problem effectively. When companies operate from this basis, they are able to achieve more revenue and expand on their sales. Critical thinking has a direct relationship with the performance of a business. Several aspects in business analysis require the massive application of critica l thinking to provide solutions (Nosich, 2012). References Nosich, G. M. (2012). Learning to Think Things Through: A Guide to Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum, Boston, MA: Pearson Education. ISBN: 978-0-13-268359-3. Smith, G. F. (2003). Beyond critical thinking and decision making: Teaching business students how to think.  Journal of Management Education,  27(1), 24-51. Source document

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Racism, By Stephen B. Morton - 1531 Words

Racism is a major evil in this world. The horrific acts that occurred on June 17, 2015 were a total and complete act of racism. Dylann Roof entered a historically black church, attended a bible study, and as the night ended he opened fire on everyone in attendance, the deaths totaling to nine. The image, taken by Stephen B. Morton signifies hope for humanity, no matter how hopeful it cannot cover up the morbidness of the acts that occurred just one day before. The image a representation of race issues in America today and shows how far we have come by supporting one another no matter the color at times of need. It also represents how racism among other things is still a prominent issue in modern day America. The photograph places the†¦show more content†¦He found a group that he felt accepted with online and with this one looks at Berreby’s â€Å"It Takes a Tribe†. People in general thrive in groups or tribes. Whether they do in consciously or not the human bod y gravitates towards being grouped with others (5). As stated in the essay confirming reasons certain acts can happen,â€Å"We know that human beings identify with social groups, sometimes sufficiently to kill or die on their behalf† (5). This biological pull can be defining of any person due to their group can make them who they are by giving them beliefs and rituals to live by. Roof felt this pull and need when he found his racist driven groups on the internet. The groups Roof felt pulled to are labeled as a white supremacist movement that originated in South Africa. Grouping is an appealing thing to anyone due to the support that is received. This is shown in the photograph as well as the group of women find comfort in each other. Being Christians and mourning the lives lost has brought these women together in this image as well as the memorial that has been created. Each person that has participated in the organization of this memorial have something in common, and this b rings this â€Å"tribe† comfort. With the help Christianity in this image God and the power of prayer has brought many people to this site of memorial to help heal the city and that was the image that Morton was

Friday, December 27, 2019

Definition and Examples of Anti-Rhetoric

In argumentative speech and  writing, anti-rhetoric is  the act of disparaging an opponents use of language by characterizing it as rhetoric or oratory, with the implication that eloquent language is inherently meaningless (mere words) or deceitful. Also called straight talk. As Sam Leith has observed, Being anti-rhetoric is, finally, just another rhetorical strategy. Rhetoric is what the other guy is doing—whereas you, youre just speaking the plain truth as you see it (Words Like Loaded Pistols: Rhetoric From Aristotle to Obama; Basic Books, 2012). Examples and Observations My opponent gives speeches. I offer solutions. (Hillary Rodham Clinton in a speech to General Motors employees in Warren, Ohio, Feb. 14, 2008) We think this journal may at least be justly commended for its comparative freedom from high-flown rhetoric. We recently rejected a somewhat elaborate paper on an important topic chiefly on account of its stilted and turgid style, and our pen often makes sad work with the fine passages which adorn (?) the contributions sent us by young writers. (E.E. White, editorial in The National Teacher, Volume 1, 1871) Taffeta phrases, silken terms precise,Three-piled hyperboles, spruce affectation,Figures pedantical; these summer-fliesHave blown me full of maggot ostentation:I do forswear them; and I here protest,By this white glove—how white the hand, God knows!—Henceforth my wooing mind shall be expressdIn russet yeas and honest kersey noes.(Lord Berowne in William Shakespeares Loves Labours Lost, Act 5, scene 2) Palin vs. Obama: Cravin That Straight TalkBarack Obama has been denounced again and again as a privileged wordsmith, a man of mere words who has authored two books (to use Sarah Palin’s verb), and done little else. The leathery extremist Phyllis Schlafly had this to say, at the Republican Convention, about Palin: I like her because she’s a woman who’s worked with her hands, which Barack Obama never did, he was just an à ©litist who worked with words. The fresher-faced extremist Rick Santorum, a former Republican senator, called Obama just a person of words, adding, Words are everything to him. . . .†Sarah Palin . . . may claim, as she did in last Thursday’s Vice-Presidential debate, that Americans are cravin’ that straight talk, but they are sure not going to get it from the Governor—not with her peculiar habit of speaking only half a sentence and then moving on to another for spoliation, that strange, ghostly drifting through the hazi est phrases. (James Wood, Verbage. The New Yorker, October 13, 2008) The Anti-Rhetoric of Presidents and Prime Ministers   It is in their trenchant opposition to rhetoric, oratory, and their corresponding celebration of rhetorical simplicity that presidents have been most explicitly anti-intellectual. Here, the link between rhetorical simplicity and anti-intellectualism . . . is manifest. President Eisenhowers definition of an intellectual displays this link: the intellectual . . . [is] a man who takes more words than are necessary to tell more than he knows, he once proposed. A Nixon speechwriter echoes this statement when he observes: the people who are most eloquent are often the least wise. As a Regan speechwriter observes, One of the great myths of the modern age in particular is that great speeches and effective leadership [are] about speaking cleverly. (Elvin T. Lim, The Anti-Intellectual Presidency: The Decline of Presidential Rhetoric from George Washington to George W. Bush. Oxford University Press, 2008)In October 1966, knowing that the Labour Minister (and one-time Fellow of New College, Oxford) Richard Crossman would be winding up a debate on prices and incomes, [Margaret Thatcher] took the opportunity to discredit her opponents eloquence in advance. We are all used to the right hon. Gentlemans ebullient, effervescent style, she said. It is always extremely attractive. It is often something of an Oxford Union style. Responding to some laughter in the Chamber, she went on: I assure hon. Members that I am making no blandishments. The right hon. Gentleman has the kind of style which sounds tremendously impressive and which is most agreeable to listen to, but I find that one never believes a word of what he says because one knows that he is quite capable of making just as attractive an ebullient and effervescent speech tomorrow entirely contradicting all he has said today. . . .Of course, her own plain speaking is as much a rhetorical construction as the grandest of styles, and it is a relatively simple task to show that, knowingly or not, many of her assertions of pla in political sincerity are figuratively produced. We say what we mean and mean what we say, is one of many examples of her use of antimetabole, where, ironically, the circular and self-validating structure of the figure is asked to create an impression of straight talking. (Christopher Reid, Margaret Thatcher and the Gendering of Political Oratory. Oratory in Action, ed. by Michael Edwards and Christopher Reid. Manchester University Press, 2004) Anti-Rhetoric As a Strategic Act: Mark Antony,Silvio Berlusconi, and Donald Trump [T]he I just want to tell it like it is maneuver is a familiar one in the annals of rhetoric. It’s what Mark Antony is up to when he says to the Roman crowd in Julius Caesar, I am no orator, as Brutus is; / But, as you know me all, a plain, blunt man,† in the midst of his â€Å"Friends, Romans and countrymen† speech, one of the most cunning displays of technical rhetoric, not only in Shakespeare, but in the English language. Rhetoric  is the language Rome’s elite used to debate; by denying that he knows the first thing about it, Mark Antony is in effect tearing up his gold membership card and reassuring his plebeian audience that, though he may look rich and powerful, he is really one of them. Nearly four centuries after Shakespeare wrote those words, Silvio Berlusconi successfully struck the same pose in modern Italy. If there’s one thing I can’t abide it’s  rhetoric, he told the Italian public. All I’m interested in is what needs to get done.But for all its protests,  anti-rhetoric  is just another form of rhetoric and, whether Mr. [Donald]  Trump is conscious of it or not, it has its own  rhetorical  markers. Short sentences (We have to build a wall, folks!) that pummel the listener in a series of sharp jabs. . . .Anti-rhetoric  also uses I and you  constantly, because its central goal is not to lay out an argument but to assert a relationship, and a story about us and our struggle against them. It says the things society has deemed unsayable, at least in part to demonstrate contempt for the  rhetorical  conventions imposed by the elite—and if that elite then cries out in horror, so much the better.(Mark Thompson, T rump and the Dark History of Straight Talk. The New York Times, August 27, 2016) The term rhetoric of anti-rhetoric refers to the fact that many public speakers, in politics and law courts, self-consciously distance themselves from perverse uses of deceitful rhetoric, while presenting themselves as courageous truth-tellers. They use this topos in their self-presentation to align themselves squarely with public interest, and that would obviously give them an edge in a competitive environment. Speakers demonstrate in this way that they are aware of the importance of speeches as a vehicle for deliberation and of the dangers posed by deceptive communication [Jon Hesk, 2000:pp. 4-5]. The topos not only functions as a strategic act of self-authorisation, it is also inherently antagonistic in that one distances oneself from ones adversaries, who are, it is implied, likely to engage in illicit rhetorical maneuvering (ibid. pp. 169, 208). (Ineke Sluiter, Deliberation, Free Speech and the Marketplace of Ideas. Bending Opinion: Essays on Persuasion in the Public Domain, ed. by Ton Van Haaften, Henrike Jansen, Jaap De Jong, and Willem De Koetsenruijter. Leiden University Press, 2011) Anti-Rhetoric in the Human Sciences Where is rhetoric to be found in the development of the human sciences? Boeckhs Enzklopadie includes rhetoric in the chapter on the empirical human sciences and understands it as a theory of stylistic speech form . . .. According to Boeckh, . . . [rhetoric] finally relapsed into insubstantial and affected verbosity. In the modern period, however, the theory of rhetoric made no progress, indeed it had been neglected and almost forgotten because attention is directed more towards intellectual substance than to form. Boeckhs statement indicates the three-fold aspects of anti-rhetoric apparent in the human sciences. First, form is considered as external, as something imposed upon the intellectual content; second, rhetoric is devalued as an unphilosophical artistic skill; and third, as a persuasive art it is subordinated to the dialectical theory of knowledge.(Walter Rà ¼egg, Rhetoric and Anti-Rhetoric in the 19th and 20th Century Human Sciences in Germany. The Recovery of Rhetoric: Persuasive Discourse and Disciplinarity in the Human Sciences, ed. by R.H. Roberts and J.M.M. Good. University  Press of Virginia, 1993) Anti-Anti-Rhetoric The invitation to rhetoric is not, I emphasize, an invitation to replace careful analysis with rhetoric, or to abandon mathematics in favor of name-calling or flowery language. The good rhetorician loves care, precision, explicitness, and economy in argument as much as the next person. . . . The suspicion of rhetoric is as old as philosophy itself: we cannot use mere plausibility because an eloquent speaker could fool us: Socrates: And he who possesses the art [of rhetoric] can make the same thing appear to the same people just, now unjust, at will?Phaedrus: To be sure.( Phaedrus 261d) We need something, it has been said, besides the mere social fact that an argument proved persuasive.To such an objection the answers, then, are two. Science and other epistemologically pure methods can also be used to lie. Our defense must be to discourage lying, not to discourage a certain class of talk. Secondly, talk against talk is self-refuting. The person making it appeals to Anti-Anti-Rhetoric a social, nonepistemological standard of persuasiveness by the very act of trying to persuade someone that mere persuasion is not enough. (Deirdre N. McCloskey, The Rhetoric of Economics, 2nd ed. University  of Wisconsin Press, 1998)